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Research

Research Insights

Our immune mucosal barriers line the entire inside surface of our bodies, and serve as our foundational pathway and first line of defense. They are fundamental to our well-being. ARMRA Colostrum, the clinically-backed, bioactive whole food, harnesses the power of bovine colostrum's 400+ functional nutrients to naturally strengthen these barriers, paving the way to transformational health.

Thousands of published research studies attest to the benefits of colostrum for health, and navigating this vast array of research can be overwhelming. So, for inquisitive minds, we've compiled a list of some of the most compelling research studies that shaped the development of ARMRA Colostrum.

Research on patent-pending ARMRA ColostrumTM:

There are over 5,000 published studies documenting the benefits of colostrum and its ability to optimize health at all stages of life. Here's a curation of four that standout among them.

Bovine Colostrum Supplementation in Prevention of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections – Systematic Review, Meta-analysis and Meta-regression of Randomized Controlled Trials Published 2022

“Our systematic review and meta-analysis, including more than triple the number of participants as compared to previous analysis of this kind, strongly confirms that bovine colostrum supplementation significantly reduces the incidence of URTIs.”

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Therapeutic Applications of Human and Bovine Colostrum in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases…The Current Evidence Published 2020

“Bovine colostrum supplements have proven useful in the management of gastrointestinal diseases, such as acute infectious diarrhea, Helicobacter pylori infections, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)”

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Colostrum and Lactoferrin Protect against Side Effects of Therapy with Antibiotics, Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Steroids, and Psychophysical Stress: A Comprehensive Review Published 2023

“Colostrum-based products can also be of value for individuals subjected to prolonged psychophysical stress, especially at high ambient temperatures (soldiers and emergency services), as well as physically active people and training athletes.”

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A Systematic Review of the Influence of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Leaky Gut Syndrome in Athletes: Diagnostic Biomarkers and Future Directions Published 2023

“Conclusion: Bovine Colostrum supplementation may be highly beneficial in improving gut permeability in athletes.”

Read the study
Satelite view of land and dark water
Satelite view of land and dark water

For a peek into more targeted research studies that have been conducted, we’ve highlighted several others:

Studies Exploring the Benefits of Colostrum and Its Active Ingredients (1-8)

1. Arslan A, Kaplan M, Duman H, Bayraktar A, Ertürk M, Henrick BM, Frese SA, Karav S. Bovine Colostrum and Its Potential for Human Health and Nutrition. Front Nutr. 2021 Jun 21;8:651721. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.651721. PMID: 34235166; PMCID: PMC8255475.
2. Poonia A, Shiva. Bioactive compounds, nutritional profile and health benefits of colostrum: a review. Food Prod Process and Nutr. 2022;4(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s43014-022-00104-1. Epub 2022 Oct 25. PMCID: PMC9592540.
3. Muhammad Umar, Uracha Ruktanonchai, Davids Makararpong & Anil Kumar Anal (2023) Enhancing Immunity Against Pathogens Through Glycosylated Bovine Colostrum Proteins, Food Reviews International, DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2023.2169866
4. Artym J, Zimecki M. Colostrum and Lactoferrin Protect against Side Effects of Therapy with Antibiotics, Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Steroids, and Psychophysical Stress: A Comprehensive Review. Biomedicines. 2023 Mar 27;11(4):1015. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines11041015. PMID: 37189633; PMCID: PMC10136316.
5. Artym J, Zimecki M. Colostrum Proteins in Protection against Therapy-Induced Injuries in Cancer Chemo- and Radiotherapy: A Comprehensive Review. Biomedicines. 2023 Jan 3;11(1):114. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines11010114. PMID: 36672622; PMCID: PMC9856106.
6. Mach, J.-P. & Pahud, J.-J. (1971) Secretory IgA, a major immunoglobulin in most bovine external secretions. J. Immunol.106:552–563.
7. Hurley WL, Theil PK. Perspectives on immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk. Nutrients. 2011 Apr;3(4):442-74. doi: 10.3390/nu3040442. Epub 2011 Apr 14. PMID: 22254105; PMCID: PMC3257684. 8. Kowalczyk P, Kaczyńska K, Kleczkowska P, Bukowska-Ośko I, Kramkowski K, Sulejczak D. The Lactoferrin Phenomenon-A Miracle Molecule. Molecules. 2022 May 4;27(9):2941. doi: 10.3390/molecules27092941. PMID: 35566292; PMCID: PMC9104648.

Understanding the Impact of Immune Barrier Disruptions (1-10)

1. Liang L, Saunders C, Sanossian N. Food, gut barrier dysfunction, and related diseases: A new target for future individualized disease prevention and management. Food Sci Nutr. 2023 Mar 7;11(4):1671-1704. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.3229. PMID: 37051344; PMCID: PMC10084985.
2. Bischoff, Stephan C et al. “Intestinal permeability--a new target for disease prevention and therapy.” BMC gastroenterology vol. 14 189. 18 Nov. 2014.
3. Chelakkot et al, “Mechanisms regulating intestinal barrier integrity and its pathological implications.” Experimental & Molecular Medicine 50, Article number: 103 (2018).
4. Paray BA, Albeshr MF, Jan AT, Rather IA. Leaky Gut and Autoimmunity: An Intricate Balance in Individuals Health and the Diseased State. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 21;21(24):9770. doi: 10.3390/ijms21249770. PMID: 33371435; PMCID: PMC7767453.
5. Graziani C, Laterza L, et al. Intestinal Permeability and Dysbiosis in Female Patients with Recurrent Cystitis: A Pilot Study. J Pers Med. 2022 Jun 20;12(6):1005. doi: 10.3390/jpm12061005. PMID: 35743789; PMCID: PMC9225239.
6. Niewiem M, Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk U. Intestinal Barrier Permeability in Allergic Diseases. Nutrients. 2022 Apr 30;14(9):1893. doi: 10.3390/nu14091893. PMID: 35565858; PMCID: PMC9101724.
7. Puricelli C, Rolla R, Gigliotti L, Boggio E, Beltrami E, Dianzani U, Keller R. The Gut-Brain-Immune Axis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A State-of-Art Report. Front Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 3;12:755171. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.755171. PMID: 35185631; PMCID: PMC8850385.
8. Wang LJ, Li SC, Yeh YM, Lee SY, Kuo HC, Yang CY. Gut mycobiome dysbiosis and its impact on intestinal permeability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2023 Sep;64(9):1280-1291. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13779. Epub 2023 Apr 5. PMID: 37016804.
9. Hansson E, Skiöldebrand E. Low-grade inflammation causes gap junction-coupled cell dysfunction throughout the body, which can lead to the spread of systemic inflammation. Scand J Pain. 2019 Jun 28;19(4):639-649. doi: 10.1515/sjpain-2019-0061. PMID: 31251727.
10. Yazici D, Cagan E, Tan G, Li M, Do E, Kucukkase OC, Simsek A, Kizmaz MA, Bozkurt T, Aydin T, Heider A, Rückert B, Brüggen MC, Dhir R, O'Mahony L, Akdis M, Nadeau KC, Budak F, Akdis CA, Ogulur I. Disrupted epithelial permeability as a predictor of severe COVID-19 development. Allergy. 2023 Oct;78(10):2644-2658. doi: 10.1111/all.15800. Epub 2023 Jul 8. PMID: 37422701.

Bovine Colostrum's Effectiveness Against Influenza: Studies Comparing Colostrum to Flu Vaccines and its Potential in Upper Respiratory Infection Support and Recovery (1-9)

1. Cesarone, Maria Rosaria, et al. “Prevention of Influenza Episodes With Colostrum Compared With Vaccination in Healthy and High-Risk Cardiovascular Subjects: The Epidemiologic Study in San Valentino.” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, Apr. 2007, pp. 130–136. PMID: 17456621.
2. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Cornelli U, Pellegini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, Dugall M, Ruffini I, Fano F, Ricci A, Stuard S, Luzzi R, Grossi MG, Hosoi M. Prevention of flu episodes with colostrum and Bifivir compared with vaccination: an epidemiological, registry study. Panminerva Med. 2010 Dec;52(4):269-75.
3. Alyne Batista da Silva Galdino, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel, Harpal Singh Buttar, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Elaine Cristina Gavioli, Riva de Paula Oliveira, Danielle Cavalcanti Sales, Stela Antas Urbano & Katya Anaya (2021) Bovine colostrum: benefits for the human respiratory system and potential contributions for clinical management of COVID-19, Food and Agricultural Immunology, 32:1, 143-162, DOI: 10.1080/09540105.2021.1892594.
4. Swati Khartode S, Early Recovery of COVID-19 Patients by Using Immunoglobulins Present in Cow Colostrum Food Supplement - A Clinical Study, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2021, 9 (3):186-198.
5. Baśkiewicz-Hałasa M, Stachowska E, Grochans E, Maciejewska-Markiewicz D, Bühner L, Skonieczna-Żydecka K, Hałasa M. Moderate Dose Bovine Colostrum Supplementation in Prevention of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Medical University Students: A Randomized, Triple Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2023; 15(8):1925. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081925
6. Hałasa M., Baśkiewicz-Hałasa M., Jamioł-Milc D., Maciejewska-Markiewicz D., Skonieczna-Żydecka K. Bovine colostrum supplementation in prevention of upper respiratory tract infections—Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. J. Funct. Foods. 2022;99:105316. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2022.105316.
7. Hałasa M, Skonieczna-Żydecka K, Machaliński B, Bühner L, Baśkiewicz-Hałasa M. Six Weeks of Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Effectively Reduces URTIs Symptoms Frequency and Gravity for Up to 20 Weeks in Pre-School Children. Nutrients. 2023 Aug 18;15(16):3626. doi: 10.3390/nu15163626. PMID: 37630816; PMCID: PMC10459079.
8. Batista da Silva Galdino A, do Nascimento Rangel AH, Buttar HS, et al. Bovine colostrum: Benefits for the human respiratory system and potential contributions for clinical management of COVID-19. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2021;32(1):143-162. doi:10.1080/09540105.2021.1892594
9. Duman H, Karav S. Bovine colostrum and its potential contributions for treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Frontiers in Immunology. 2023;14. doi:https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2023.1214514

Bovine Colostrum in Sports: Studies on Performance, Recovery, and Physical Composition (1-11)

1. Antonio, J et al. “The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women.” Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) vol. 17,3 (2001): 243-7. doi:10.1016/s0899-9007(00)00552-9.
2. Davison, Glen. “Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.” Medicine and sport science vol. 59 (2012): 62-69. doi:10.1159/000341966
3. Główka, Natalia, and Małgorzata Woźniewicz. “Potential use of Colostrum Bovinum supplementation in athletes - A review.” Acta scientiarum polonorum. Technologia alimentaria vol. 18,2 (2019): 115-123. doi:10.17306/J.AFS.0654.
4. Shing, C.M., Hunter, D.C. & Stevenson, L.M. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation and Exercise Performance. Sports Med 39, 1033–1054 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2165/11317860-000000000-00000
5. Shing CM, Peake JM, Suzuki K, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS. A pilot study: bovine colostrum supplementation and hormonal and autonomic responses to competitive cycling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Oct;53(5):490-501.
https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(12)00343-8/fulltext.
6. Kotsis Y, Mikellidi A, Aresti C, Persia E, Sotiropoulos A, Panagiotakos DB, Antonopoulou S, Nomikos T. A low-dose, 6-week bovine colostrum supplementation maintains performance and attenuates inflammatory indices following a Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test in soccer players. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1181-1195. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1401-7. Epub 2017 Mar 11. PMID: 28285432; PMCID: PMC5861165.
7. Crooks, C. V., Wall, C. R., Cross, M. L., & Rutherfurd-Markwick, K. J. (2006). The Effect of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Salivary IgA in Distance Runners, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16(1), 47-64.
8. Dziewiecka H, Buttar HS, Kasperska A, Ostapiuk-Karolczuk J, Domagalska M, Cichoń J, Skarpańska-Stejnborn A. A Systematic Review of the Influence of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Leaky Gut Syndrome in Athletes: Diagnostic Biomarkers and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 17;14(12):2512. doi: 10.3390/nu14122512. PMID: 35745242; PMCID: PMC9227274.
9. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition. 2001 Mar;17(3):243-7. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(00)00552-9. PMID: 11312068.
10. Davison G. The Use of Bovine Colostrum in Sport and Exercise. Nutrients. 2021 May 24;13(6):1789. doi: 10.3390/nu13061789. PMID: 34073917; PMCID: PMC8225123.
11. Shing CM, Peake JM, Suzuki K, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS. A pilot study: bovine colostrum supplementation and hormonal and autonomic responses to competitive cycling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Oct;53(5):490-501. PMID: 23903529.

Bovine Colostrum's Influence on Blood Glucose and Metabolism: Key Studies (1-2)

1. Kim JH, Jung WS, Choi NJ, Kim DO, Shin DH, Kim YJ. Health-promoting effects of bovine colostrum in Type 2 diabetic patients can reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and ketones. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20(4):298-303. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.04.002
2. Ooi TC, Ahmad A, Rajab NF, Sharif R. The Effects of 12 Weeks Colostrum Milk Supplementation on the Expression Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and Metabolic Changes among Older Adults: Findings from the Biomarkers and Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis. Nutrients. 2023 Jul 18;15(14):3184. doi: 10.3390/nu15143184. PMID: 37513601; PMCID: PMC10384749.

Skin and Hair Benefits from Bovine Colostrum: A Collection of Studies on Enhanced Skin Health and Hair Growth (1-8)

1. Kazimierska K, Kalinowska-Lis U. Milk Proteins-Their Biological Activities and Use in Cosmetics and Dermatology. Molecules. 2021 May 28;26(11):3253. doi: 10.3390/molecules26113253. PMID: 34071375; PMCID: PMC8197926.
2. Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing Skin Health: By Oral Administration of Natural Compounds and Minerals with Implications to the Dermal Microbiome. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 7;19(10):3059. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103059. PMID: 30301271; PMCID: PMC6213755.
3. Han G, Kim H, Kim DE, Ahn Y, Kim J, Jang YJ, Kim K, Yang Y, Kim SH. The Potential of Bovine Colostrum-Derived Exosomes to Repair Aged and Damaged Skin Cells. Pharmaceutics. 2022 Jan 27;14(2):307. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14020307. PMID: 35214040; PMCID: PMC8877896.
4. Murata M, Satoh T, Wakabayashi H, Yamauchi K, Abe F, Nomura Y. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced skin photodamage in hairless mice. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Feb;97(2):651-8. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7153. Epub 2013 Dec 18. PMID: 24359814.
5. Lolou V, Panayiotidis MI. Functional Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Skin Health and Disease. Fermentation. 2019; 5(2):41.https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020041
7. Kim H, Jang Y, Kim EH, Jang H, Cho H, Han G, Song HK, Kim SH, Yang Y. Potential of Colostrum-Derived Exosomes for Promoting Hair Regeneration Through the Transition From Telogen to Anagen Phase. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Mar 10;10:81520.
8. Trüeb RM. Further Clinical Evidence for the Effect of IGF-1 on Hair Growth and Alopecia. Skin Appendage Disord. 2018 Apr;4(2):90-95. doi: 10.1159/000479333.

Brain Health and Bovine Colostrum: Selected Studies on the Benefits of Oral Ingestion (1-2)

1. Leszek J, Inglot AD, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Krukowska K, Georgiades JA. Colostrinin: a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) complex isolated from ovine colostrum for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1999;47(6):377-85. PMID: 10608295.
2. Leszek J, Inglot AD, Janusz M, Byczkiewicz F, Kiejna A, Georgiades J, Lisowski J. Colostrinin proline-rich polypeptide complex from ovine colostrum--a long-term study of its efficacy in Alzheimer's disease. Med Sci Monit. 2002 Oct;8(10):PI93-6. PMID: 12388930.

Urinary Health Benefits from Bovine Colostrum: Research on the Effects of Oral Ingestion (1-2)

1. Conte AL, Longhi C, Conte MP, Costanzo AM, Paesano R, Santangeli S, Venditto F, Tripepi G, Naldi E, Pollio G, Cavallini V, Marrani M, Faltoni P, Valenti P, Rosa L. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on recurrent urinary tract infections: in vitro and in vivo evidences. Biometals. 2023 Jun;36(3):491-507. doi: 10.1007/s10534-022-00409-1. Epub 2022 Jun 29. PMID: 35768747.
2. Park JK, Park HJ, Joo KJ. The Suppressive Effect of Bovine Colostrum Combined with Antibiotics on Renal Inflammation. Korean J Urol. 2006 Oct;47(10):1111-1116. https://doi.org/10.4111/kju.2006.47.10.1111

Exploring Gut Health and the Microbiome with Bovine Colostrum: Selected studies (1-4)

1. Bagwe-Parab S, Yadav P, Kaur G, Tuli HS, Buttar HS. Therapeutic Applications of Human and Bovine Colostrum in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases and Distinctive Cancer Types: The Current Evidence. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 11;11:01100. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.01100. PMID: 33071773; PMCID: PMC7533576.
2. Koohi O, Shahriarirad R, Erfani A, Nekouei F, Seifbehzad S, Ebrahimi A, Tanideh N, Hosseinzadeh M, Nadimi E, Ashkani-Esfahani S. Evaluation of oral and topical bovine colostrum compared to mesalamine in the treatment of animal model of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Ann Gastroenterol. 2023 May-Jun;36(3):300-306. doi: 10.20524/aog.2023.0796. Epub 2023 Apr 8. PMID: 37144020; PMCID: PMC10152808.
3. Elsasser TH, Ma B, Ravel J, Kahl S, Gajer P, Cross A. Short-term feeding of defatted bovine colostrum mitigates inflammation in the gut via changes in metabolites and microbiota in a chicken animal model. Anim Microbiome. 2023 Jan 26;5(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s42523-023-00225-z. PMID: 36703224; PMCID: PMC9878500.
4. Zivkovic AM, Barile D. Bovine milk as a source of functional oligosaccharides for improving human health. Adv Nutr. 2011 May;2(3):284-9. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000455. Epub 2011 Apr 30. PMID: 22332060; PMCID: PMC3090169.